Senin, 11 Mei 2009



How to invite people orally
Making appointements
Expressing happiness
Expressing sympathy
How to gain people attention orally
Giving instructions
Makking written announcemet
Simple present and simple past
Recount text
Narrative text
Procedure text

Gretting is peace or greet often say to people.
Grettings are often,but now always,used just priorto a conservations.

Example of Grettings:
- Hello
- How do you do ?
- How are you ?
- Good morning
- Good afternoon
- Good day
- Good bye.....
“Short dialogue of grettings”
Nia : Good morning Ir....
Ira : Good morning,Nia...How are you ?
Nia : I’m very well,thanks.How’s everythink with you
Ir ?
Ira : Great.....!!!!

2).How to invite people orally
How to invite people orally is invite people of direct or oral.
- Would you like to.........
- Do you want to libary....
- How you like to.........

3).Making Appointements
Making appointements is the way of when we ware go
or come to do something pleace with invite comeone or more.
Example :
Making an appointements
- I’d like to make an appointements with.....
- I want to make an appointements to see....
- I’d like to make an appointements to see.....
- I’d like you to come and see me.....
- Can I come and see you ?

Accepting an appointements
- All right, see you there
- No problem, I’m free on
- Be there on time
- It’s a deal....

Canceling an appointements
- I’m sorry, I’m very busy
- I’m terribly sorry I have to put off my appointements.
- I’m ofraid I have to putpore my appointements with tomorrow morning.

4).Expressing Happiness
Expressing happiness is the expresion thas use to show if we happy and pleasure.
Example :
- Fantastic !
- I’m glad now
- I’m very happy
- Happy birthday
- Terrific
Example of happiness expresions :
Andi :I get the birthday present from my mother,
Ana : Fantastic ! This great....

5).Expressing Sympathy
Expressing sympathy is thr expressions to extend if we care about something.
The Purpose is the peoples will know if we care with them.the expression of sympathy expressions can be devided into two parts.( informal and formal)
Example :
- I’m sorry to hear that.
- I’d like to express my deepest condolences.
- I’m awfully sorry about.
- Oh.........., dear......!!!!
- Poor you !!!!!!!!!
- I know your feelling.
- You must be very upset!!!!!

6).How to gain people attention orally
Attention to show moment somebody.want to tells the important something or one announcements or to need something.
Express Attention
- Attentions, please.....
- May/ can I have your attentions, please......!!!
- Excuse me
- Look here
- Listen to me, please....
- Waiter ?
- I’m sorry, but.......

7).Giving Instructions
Giving instructions is an expressions for give or ask somebody to do something we want giving instructions some with imperetive sentences.

ex : Watch out, come here
b).Please + V (+O)
ex : Please clean your room
c).V (+O) + Please
ex :Wash this towel, Please

a).Don’t + V (+O)
ex : Don’t close it
b).Don’t + V (+O) + Please
ex : Don’t be noise, please
c).Would you mind, not + V –ing (+O)

3).Kinds of giving instructions
a).Verb 1
ex : Wash your hand eat your meal sit down.
b).Be + adjective
ex : Be your self...!!!!
Be a good student...!!!
Be strong.....!!!!
Be happy...!!!!

8).Making written announcements
Making written announcements written announcements so that know people.
Example :
a).School Band
Next rehearsal Friday, 15 th oct 4 P.M don’t be late.

b).Basket Ball
Any student interested in playing for the school, come to the trialls, Friday after school sports hall.

c).Attention please
The student organizations (OSIS) will hold a weekend camping next week all student are allowed to join it.

9).Simple Present and Simple Past
Simple Present :
Rumus : I/ we/ you/ they + infinitive
He/ she/ it + infinitive + S
Function :
a).For to prove one deed the usual in activity :
- My father go to office every morning.
- I’m go to school every morning clock 06.30.
b).For to prove truth no find to protest

- The sunrise in the east every morning.
- The sunrise in thr west every afternoon.

Simple Past :
Rumus : Subject + Past tense
Shape this to use for one deed already happen at past in shape simple and to know at already.
Example :
- I went to Surabaya yesterday.
- Yesterday is my happy birthday.

10).Recount Text
Recount text a text which has social function to retell events for the purpose on or entertaining it means that you make recount text has following.
Generic Structur :
- Provides the setting and introduces participants.
- Tell, what happened, and what sequence
c).re – Orientation
- oplicnal closence events.

“ Example of recount text “

“ Exploring Space “
Before the telescope was invented, astronomy, consistend largely of measuning and predicting the positions of stars and planets observed by naked eye.
In 1609 a revolution began when galileo galilei used a telescope to repeat mountains on the moon, Jupiter, moon and count stars in thr milkyway.
Despite these amazing discoveries, however, for the next 250 years astronomy was predominanty devoded to measuring pastions and cataloging.

Primbon two

Daftar Isi

Gratitude, Compliment, and Congratulation
Surprises and Disbeliefs
Narrative Text
Modal In The Past Form
Direct and Indirect Speech
Descriptive Text
Simple Present Tense
News Item
Finite Verbs
Noun Pharases, and
Passive Voice

1).Gratitude, Compliment, and Congratulation
Gratitude : The way to said thank you to other
To express gratitude, you can say :
- Thank you very much
- I am greateful ( to.... )
- I wnt to thank.....
- I want to express my gratitude to.......
- I keep forgeting to thank you for....

Respon of expressing :
- You are welcome’
- Don’t mention it
- Not at all
- It was nothing at all
- No problem
- Glad to be of help
- ( It was ) my pleasure
- Anytime

Congratulation : To said “ good “ for other people.
Expressing :
- Congratulation - Happy birthday
- Well done - Happy new year
- That’s : Funtastic Wonder fuul
Marveollus Exiting

Compliment : To give praising to other people.
Some people use compliment to “ better up “ someday or to flatter in order to increase good will you compliment someone, for example :
- On his/ her general appearance
- If you notice something new about the person
- When you visit someone’s
- House for the first time
- When other people do their best
Expressing :
- What a nice dress
- You look great
- You look very nice
- Good grades
- Excellent
- nice work
- I really must express my admination for you dance

2).Surprises and Disbelief
Expressing surprises or disbelief is used to express something that we can’t believe or impossible.
To express surprises or disbelief, we use many words or many expressions, we can say :
- That’s unbelieveable !
- That’s very surprising !
- What a surprise !
- You are kidding !
- Fanci that !
- Oh, !
- I find that hard to believe !

Example :
Dina : What a surprises ?
Devy : What happens ?
Dina :Ther our friend, is singing at “ the Idol “
Devy : Ough, are kidding...

Advertisement : Information persuade and motivate people so thad attracted to service and things that affer. Function of advertisement :

We can find the advertisement on newspaper, tabloid magazine, radio, television, billboard, etc.
Kind of advertisement :
- Announcement advertisement
- Invitation advertisement
- Request advertisement
- Sponsor advertisement
- Article advertisement
- Offer advertisement

In making an advertisement keep the following points :
- The contets of advertisement must objective and
- Short and clean
- Doesn’t allude other group or producer.
- Use word that polite and logical.
- Attract attention.

4).Narrative Text
The purpose of the text : to entertain, create, stimulate, emotions, inotivate, guide, and teach.

Structure :
a).Orientation : It sets the scene and introdures the
participants ( Who, When, What, Where ).
b).Evaluation : A stepping back to evaluate the
plight ( the information about the narator’s poin of
view ) it is optional.
c).Complication : a crisis or a problem arises
d). Resolution : A solution to the problem
e).Re-Orientation : Kesimpulan ( Optional )

5).Modals In The Past Form
Modals in the past form : kata bantu pengandaian
dalam bentuk lampau.
Modals in the past are :
- Could - Would - Should - Shall

a).Could + verb base
We can use this expression : to offer seggestion or possibilities.
Ex : Ersa : I’m having trouble with math
Febi : Why don’t you ask puteri ?
Perhaps she could help you

b).Might + verb base
Use might to tell possibilities.
Ex : Vita : Why is Rio taking the bus to get home
Vira : He might get a flat time.

c).Would + verb base
Use would for an action that was repeated regulary in the past.
Ex : Ani : What did you usually do in holidays ?
Risa : I would visit my grandparent in the
village, but how not anymore.

d).Would + mind + V- ing
Use would to express polite request.
Ex : Mr. Herman : Would you mind posting the
Vania : No, not at all

e).Should + verb base
Ex : Nova : Feli, you should go to libary now !!!!
Feli : O.k

6).Direct and Indirect Speech
- Direct Speech : Refers to repruducing another person’s exact words, We use quotation maks.
- Indirect Speech : Refers to repruducing the idea of another person’s words. Not all of the exact words rae used verb froms and pronouns my change.

The are 3 kinds of indirect speect :
a).Command / request ( permintaan )
Direct : Mrs. Chandra said to Vita “ don’t worry
about it “
Indirect : Mrs. Chandra told Vita not to worry
about it.

b).Question ( pertanyaan )
Direct : Devy asked “ Are you a journalist ? “
Indirect : Devy asked if / whether I was a

c).Statement ( pernyataan )
Direct : Mr. Julius said “ I worked hard
yesterday “
Indirect : Mr. Julius said that he worked hard the
day before.

7).Descriptive Text
The porpuse of descriptive is to describe something spesially.
Example :
a).Has long and red ears
b).Has big eyes
c).White fur

Descriptive ini menggunakan simple present tense.
Generic Structur of Descriptive Text :
1.Definition / Classification

8).Simple Present Tense
Present Tense ; ( waktu sekarang )
1).Simple Present Tense, menjelaskan peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu sekarang yang berulang-ulang.
Formula : S + V1 ( S + Es ) + O

2).Present Continuous tense, menerangkan suatu perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung waktu sekarang.
Formula : S + to be ( am, is, are ) + ing

3).Present Perfect tens, menerangkan peristiwa yang telah terjadi pada masa lampau yang masih berhubungan dengan masa sekarang namun tidak jelas waktu terjadinya.
Formula : S + have / has + past participle

4).Present Perfect Continuous tense, menyatakan perbuatan yang di mulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung hingga sekarang.
Formula : S + have / has + been + past perticiple

9).News Item
A news item text is a factual text which inform readers of daily newspaper about events of the day which are regarder as newsworth or important.

The structur of the text consist of three parts :
a).Newsworthy event : Recounts the event in
summary form.
b).Bacground event : Elaborate what happened, to
whom, and in what circum
c).Source : Comment by participants in, witnasses to
and authorities expert on the event.

Langguage Features :
- Focus to somebody, animal, or spesific thing
- Short information that is in core of action
- Using action verb as an example : eat, I am, etc
- Using saying verb as an example : say, tell, etc
- Using adverb of time and adverb of place
- Using adverb as an example : badly, etc
- Report using past tense : was received, etc
- Ordered as the event’s process.

10).Finite Verbs
A finite verbs is a verb that is iaflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the langguages in which it occurs.
Finite verbs can form “ Independent clause “ which can stand by their own as complete sentences.An independent clause as a complete sentence.It contains the main subject and verb of a sentences.
In english, only verbs in certain mood are finite
These Include : Indicative mood : expressing a state of affairs.Dalam indicative mood, finite verb harus menggunakan verbs, example :
- The buldozer demolished the restaurant.
- Ani is going to visit her mother in hospital.
- He has wainted his father since morning.
: Imperative mood : giving a comment. Dalam imperative mood, finite verb tidak memerlukan subjek karena tampa memakai subjek pun kalimatnya sudah jelas.Examples :
a).Positive command
- Help me, please !!!
b).Negative verb
- Don’t do that

11).Noun Pharases
Noun is word to point / signed at the thing.
For example : The tall, my brother,loneliness, etc.
Pharases is a group of words so, noun pharases is a group of words that to point / signed at the thing.
Noun pharases consist of a pronoun or noun with only associated noun pharases can act a subject, object, complement object of preposition, an object of verb.

The Function of noun pharases
ex : The children play on the forest.
ex : My mother buys a basket of vegetables.
ex : Bogor is a rainy location.

The basic structure of noun pharases. Pharases consist minimally of a head this means, in one words, pharases like ( boy ), the head is “ boy “ in langer pharases a string of elemants my appean before the head.
Example : The naughty boy.

12).Passive voice
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, howover, who or what is performing the action.
Example : My bike was stolen

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen, I do not know, however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in a passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows :
Example : A mistake was made.
In the case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone.
a).Form of passive
Subject + finite form of to be + past particple
( 3 rd column of irregular verbs )
Example : A letter was written

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice,not the following :
- The object of the active sentences becomes the
subject of the passive sentence.
- The finite form of the verbs in changed.
( to be + past participle )
- The subject of the active sentence becomes the
object of the passive sentence( or is dropped )
b).Passive Sentences with Two Objects
Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two object becomes the subject, the other one remains an object.
Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active : Rita wrote a letter to me
Passive : A letter was written to me by Rita
Passive : I was written a letter by Rita

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.
c).Personal and Impersonal Passive
Personal passive simply means that the the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object
( transitive verb ) can form a personal passive.
Example : He says – it is said.

Impersonal passive is not is not as in some other langguages. In english, impersonal, passive is only possible with verbs of parception.
Example : They say that women live loner than men. It is said that women live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause ( women ) goes to the beginning of the sentences : the verb of perception is put into passive voice.
The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with “ to “ ( certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped )
Sometimes the term personal passive is used in English lesson if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.